Monday, 2 January 2017

Textual Analysis Alphabet

  • Alvarado's theory // Alvarado identified the four key themes in racial representations, these are:
        - Exotic
        - Dangerous
        - Humorous
        - Pitied

  • Blocking - The positioning and movements of a character in relation to the camera.
  • Canted angle // When the camera is placed on a slant, often used to portray the psychological uneasiness or tension in the subject being filmed.

  • Diegetic sound // Sound which has a source on-screen, like dialogue.
  • Establishing shot // A shot used at the start of a new scene that shows the audience where the action is taking place.
  • Fast-paced editing // When scenes are edited together using lots of shots cut together quickly to create tension and to position the audience to see that the action is taking place quickly.
  • Gender // A key area that can be studied in TV dramas that involves the binary differences between male and female characters.
  • Hollywood montage // Where a series of short shots are edited into a sequence to condense space, time, and information.
  • Invisible editing - A technique of editing shots together in a way that prevents the audience from noticing it.

  • Jump cut // Two shots of the same subject are taken from camera positions that vary slightly.
  • K
  • Leon Festinger // Had the theory of 'Cognitive Dissonance' that argues that we resist adjusting our attitudes unless faced with overwhelming evidence against it. He believed that we seek out confirmation of our thoughts/benefits.
  • Mise-en-scene // What is placed in the scene, including the setting, lighting, positioning of characters, casting, costume, make-up and props.

  • Non-diegetic sound // Sound which does not have a source on-screen, like music.
  • Old // An age group that contains characters in TV dramas that are commonly wise and cantankerous.
  • Pan // Rotating or pivoting the camera horizontally.

  • Q
  • Roland Barthes // Created the 5 narrative codes, they are:
        - Semantic code // Connotation (what you associate with it), Denotation (What it literally is)
        - Action code // A narrated 'cue' that indicates further action
        - Enigma code // A mystery to be solved
        - Cultural code // A meaning only apparent to a particular group
        - Symbolic code // Meaning created by 2 opposing images
  • Shot-reverse-shot // When one character is shown looking at another character (often off-screen), and then the other character is shown looking "back" at the first character.

  • Tessa Perkins // Identified how 5 stereotype assumptions can be challenged, these are:
        - Stereotypes are not always negative
        - They are not always about minority groups or the less powerful
        - They can be held by one's own group
        - They are not rigid or unchanging
        - They are not always false

  • Unity // Where characters, of which are often of different ethnicities, work together in a TV drama.
  • Verisimilitude // The construction of a believable world

  • Wealth // Usually an attribute of the upper-class characters in a TV drama.

  • Xenophobia // The dislike of prejudice against people from other countries.
  • Youth // An age group that contains characters in TV dramas that are commonly helpless.

  • Zoom // A camera shot that smoothly transits from a long shot to a medium or closeup shot.

Friday, 18 November 2016

Ex_Machina - Marketing

Ex_Machina was marketed using multiple different techniques that helped to build up anticipation for it during the production process. This is a list of the different techniques used:
  • Websites
  • Social Media
  • Trailers / Teaser Trailers
  • Posters


Three official internet sites were designed and created to market and present Ex_Machina:

  • Official website // Consists of a modernistic single long page containing the trailer, reviews, a synopsis of the story, and the cast and crew; each section scrolled through enters with a contemporary animation. The opening section of the website contains animated geometric triangles that can be interacted with using the mouse pointer, also, a song from the film's soundtrack is played while the website is in use. This modern and interactive website links with the technological theme of the film.

  • Ava Sessions // Opens with a short conversation with 'Ava' through text that leads to the user either selecting a photo from their computer or using the webcam to take a picture that Ava will 'draw' in a similar style to how she draws in the film. This immersive website allows the audience to feel connected with the characters in the film, therefore increasing the chance of them wanting to watch it. This website also includes a contemporary animated user interface that links with the theme of the film.

  • BlueBook // Opens with the text entering by a modernistic animation, another song from the film's soundtrack, and similarly animated geometric triangles that can be interacted with using the mouse pointer. This website is supposed to represent the search engine that the character Nathan programmed and produced in the film. This website immerses the audience into the story of the film and positions them to suggest that the technological aspects of the film are genuinely possible.

Social Media

An incredible free marketing technique was used to attract attention to Ex_Machina. This technique was a Tinder campaign, where the producers of the film created a Tinder account for Ava and started using it to flirtatiously converse with a man. Due to this marketing act being performed during the popular 'indie' convention South By South West (SXSW), it attracted a lot of attention from the film's target audience. This unique marketing ploy got the film into the mainstream press.


The official trailer for Ex_Machina was released close to the date of the official release of the film to show a sneak preview of various shots and scenes; this gave detail about the film but not enough to give away too much, therefore increasing the anticipation and audience.


Multiple posters were produced to market Ex_Machina; these posters were well designed in a contemporary and futuristic manner. This style of poster attracted a large audience as they use techniques that are included in posters created for most popular films today.

Thursday, 17 November 2016

Star Wars: The Force Awakens - Marketing

Star Wars: The Force Awakens was marketed using many different techniques that helped to build up anticipation for it during the production process. This is a list of the different techniques used:

  • Websites
  • Social Media
  • Trailers / Teaser Trailers
  • Posters
  • Chat shows
  • Television Interviews
  • Product Tie-ins
  • Toys


An official website for Star Wars: The Force Awakens was created prior to the release of the film to attract attention through the internet by sharing information; this increased the audience massively as many people use the internet.

Social Media

Star Wars: The Force Awakens was advertised massively through the use of social media; this attracted a massive amount of people as essentially every person in every country with internet access uses social media. These two graphics present specific data based on the popularity of the film on different social media sites.

Teaser Trailers

These teaser trailers were released to share sneak previews from the film to the possible audience in an attempt to build anticipation at an early date.

Official trailer

The official trailer for Star Wars: The Force Awakens was released at a closer date to the official release of the film to show a final sneak preview of longer shots; this gave more detail about the film but not enough to give away too much, therefore increasing the anticipation and audience.


Official posters for Star Wars: The Force Awakens were released with different formats and layouts depending on which country they were released for. As shown in the two examples below, the Chinese poster attracts more attention to the stormtroopers and the spaceships in comparison to the US poster; this represents how different cultures and audiences are attracted by different aspects in films.

Chat shows

The cast and crew of Star Wars: The Force Awakens featured as guests on live chat shows and television news interviews; this shared some information about the people involved with the film with the audience, therefore increasing interest.

Product tie-ins

Disney and Lucasfilm made deals with businesses and companies of all different sizes that produce all different kinds of goods and products; these deals allowed the companies to brand their products with Star Wars: The Force Awakens advertising. This made money for these companies and it created a lot of advertising that could be seen by everyone in any part of the world.


Disney and Lucasfilm also made deals with businesses and companies that produce children's toys; these deals allowed these companies to produce toys with a relation to Star Wars: The Force Awakens. This attracted a larger audience as it advertised the film to children.


The cast of Star Wars: The Force Awakens were photographed and presented on magazine covers. This attracted the attention of teenagers and young adults as they are the most common audience of magazines.

Tuesday, 15 November 2016

DNA Films Research

  • Duncan Kenworthy
  • Andrew Macdonald
  • DNA Films was founded in 1983
  • London, United Kingdom
Amount of films produced
  • DNA Films have produced 23 feature films
  • They are producing two coming up films also // Annihilation (2017), Trainspotting 2 (2017)
  • DNA films have won the London Greek Film Festival Award for the Greek film Invisible (2015).
  • They have been nominated for other awards also.
  • DNA Films has __ full time staff members
  • DNA Films' philosophy is...
Box-office hits
  • Ex_Machina (2015)
  • Far from the Madding Crowd (2015)
  • 28 Weeks Later (2007)
  • 28 Days Later (2002)
  • Love Actually (2003)
  • Never Let Me Go (2010)
  • Dredd (2012)
  • Amelia (2009)
  • The Parole Officer (2001)
  • Sunshine (2008)
Danny Boyle's relationship
  • Danny Boyle is a director uses DNA Films as his regular production company.
  • The films produced by DNA Films that Danny Boyle directed are:
       - Shallow Grave (1994)
       - Trainspotting (1996)
       - The Beach (2000)
       - 28 Days Later (2003)
       - 28 Weeks Later (2007)
       - Sunshine (2008)

Famous directors involved
  • Danny Boyle
  • Richard Curtis
  • Mark Romanek
Famous actors/actresses involved
  • Ewan McGregor
  • Robert Carlyle
  • Hugh Grant
  • Liam Neeson
  • Emma Thompson
Highest grossing film
  • Love Actually (2003) is the highest grossing film produced by DNA Films with a box-office figure of $246.9 million.
Hollywood studios worked with

  • DNA Films have worked with Universal Studios, a the large Hollywood studio, during the production of several of their films.
Blockbusters // Budgets
  • 28 Weeks Later (2007) // $64.2 million
  • Far from the Madding Crowd (2015) // $30.2 million
Most famous film
  • DNA Films are most famous for the production of the film Love Actually.
Film genres
  • DNA Films have produced films that fall into a full range of different genres, these genres include:
       - Fantasy
       - Romance
       - Drama
       - Gangster
       - Crime
       - Comedy
       - Horror
       - Thriller
       - Science-Fiction
       - Mystery
       - Action

DNA TV Limited partnership
  • DNA Films have entered a partnership with Fox Network Group to create a television company called DNA TV Limited.
DNA Films' website information
  • On the DNA Films website, you can find:
       - The Owners of the company
       - That DNA Films is one of the UK's most successful production companies
       - Every feature film they have produced, and some information about each one
       - Detailed information about DNA TV Limited and its productions
       - Contact information
       - Links to related websites

Interesting fact
  • The management and creative decision making in DNA TV Limited will reside in the UK; this retains the specialness of DNA Films being a British production company.

Wednesday, 9 November 2016

Wednesday, 2 November 2016

Ex_Machina Research

  • Andrew Macdonald
  • Allon Reich
Production companies
  • Film4
  • DNA Films
  • Alex Garland
Distribution company
  • Universal Pictures
VFX Supervisor
  • Andrew Whitehurst
Actors & actresses
  • Alicia Vikander // Ava
  • Domhnall Gleeson // Caleb Smith
  • Oscar Isaac // Nathan Bateman
  • Sonoya Mizuno // Kyoko
Money involved
  • Budget - $15 million
  • Box office - $36.9 million
  • Bloomberg Head Office in Finsbury Square, London
  • Pinewood studios
  • Juvet Landscape Hotel in  Valldalen, Norway
Number of screens:
  • Opening weekend // 1,255 screens
  • Peak figure // 2,004
Technology used
  • Cameras // GoPro Hero 3 Black Edition, Sony CineAlta F65, Sony CineAlta PMW-F55
  • Never used a green screen as it would of taken too much time to set up and they only had 6 weeks to film.
  • The video below shows the suit that Vikander wore and how it was edited during post production using computer generated imagery.

Friday, 30 September 2016

Star Wars: The Force Awakens research 2

Lucasfilm owner
The Walt Disney Company currently own Lucasfilm as of the 30th October 2012

Lucasfilm founder
George Lucas founded Lucasfilm in 1971.

Lucasfilm president
Kathleen Kennedy, a film producer, is the current president of Lucasfilm as of October 2012.

Major films by Lucasfilm
  • Star Wars: A New Hope (1977)
  • Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back (1980)
  • Star Wars: Return of the Jedi (1983)
  • Star Wars: The Phantom Menace (1999)
  • Star Wars: Attack of the Clones (2002)
  • Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith (2005)
  • Raiders of the Last Ark (1981)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)
  • Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008)
  • The Land Before Time (1988)
  • Labyrinth (1986)

Lucasfilm purchase price
The Walt Disney Company purchased Lucasfilm for $4.06 billion.

Star Wars: The Force Awakens Writers

  • Lawrence Kasdan
  • J. J. Abrams
  • Michael Arndt

Star Wars: The Force Awakens Director
  • J. J. Abrams directed the film, these are other films that he is responsible for:
          -Mission: Impossible III
          -Star Trek Into Darkness

          -Star Trek Beyond
          -Super 8

Star Wars films
  • So far 8 Star Wars films have been released in total, here are their titles, release dates and box office figures:
         -Star Wars: A New Hope (1977) // $775.4 million
         -Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back (1980) // $543.1 - $548.4 million
         -Star Wars: Return of the Jedi (1983) // $572.6 million
         -Star Wars: The Phantom Menace (1999) // $1.027 billion
         -Star Wars: Attack of the Clones (2002) // $649.4 million
         -Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith (2005) // $848.8 million
         -Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008) // $68.3 million
         -Star Wars: The Force Awakens (2015) // $2.068 billion

The first star wars film release
The first Star Wars film, Star Wars: A New Hope, was released on the 5th of May 1977.

  • ILM stands for Industrial Light and Magic.
  • Industrial Light and Magic is a motion picture visual effects company that creates the computer generated imagery and special effects for films.
  • George Lucas founded Industrial Light and Magic in May 1975 as a division of his film production company, Lucasfilm.
  • George Lucas created Industrial Light and Magic when he began the production of the first Star Wars. He created ILM at this time to create the visual effects and CGI for Star Wars and any other films he planned to produce in the future.

Casting directors

  • The casting directors work with the producer and the director to assemble a cast that will be right for the film. They need to retain up-to-date knowledge of current acting talent to ensure that the cast they create is perfect for their film.

First Star Wars: The Force Awakens scenes location
The first scenes for the film Star Wars: The Force Awakens were set on Rey's desert home planet of Jakku, they were filmed in The U.A.E emirate of Abu Dhabi.

Camera and film format
  • Star Wars: The Force Awakens was filmed on tape; this format was used so that the film could be captured using the same method used to capture the previous Star Wars films.
  • Star Wars: The Force Awakens was filmed using a 65mm IMAX camera to strengthen it's atmosphere using ultra-wide high definition.

Main studio used
  • Pinewood Studio was used to film a large portion of  Star Wars: The Force Awakens; this studio was used as it has many large spaces for Star Wars' huge sets.
  • Pinewood Studio is located in Buckinghamshire in the United Kingdom.
  • The James Bond film franchise is also famously filmed at Pinewood Studio.
  • This franchise links to Star Wars: The Force Awakens because they both use large sets to create big open settings.

Maz Kanata
  • J. J. Abrams received inspiration for the character Maz Kanata from his old English teacher, Rose Gilbert.
  • Advanced motion tracking technology was used to capture the performance of actress to create the character Maz Kanata. This method was used rather than practical effects because the actions that the character was required to do needed more personal and realistic movements; these are difficult to create while using puppets.
  • Lupita Nyong'o played the character Maz Kanata in Star Wars: The Force Awakens, she is also famous for these roles:
         -Patsy // 12 Years a Slave (2013)
         -Raksha // The Jungle Book (2016)
         -Nakku Harriet // Queen of Katwe (2016)

General Snoke

  • Andy Serkis played the role of General Snoke in Star Wars: The Force Awakens; his performance was also captured using advanced motion tracking technology.
  • Serkins is renowned in the movie business for his role as Gollum/Sméagol in The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit films.

Final Star Wars: The Force Awakens scenes location
The final scene of Star Wars: The Force Awakens was filmed on Skellig Michael, an island off the coast of the Republic of Ireland.

Score composer
  • John Williams composed the film score for Star Wars: The Force Awakens.
  • Williams also composed the film score for every other Star Wars film in the franchise.
  • As well as Star Wars, John Williams also composed the scores for other famous films:
         -Jurassic Park (1993)
         -The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997)
         -Jaws (1975)
         -Raiders of the Last Ark (1981)
         -Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984)
         -Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)
         -Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008)

John Boyega's auditions
  • John Boyega auditioned for the role of Finn in the film a total of 9 times, according to J. J. Abrams.
  • Theses auditions occurred over a 7 month time period.

  • The puppet model for the character BB-8 was operated by two puppeteers; Dave Chapman and Brian Herring.
  • Three different technologies were used to create different types of models for the character BB-8; physical prop versions (puppets), radio controlled versions and some static prop versions. The type of technology used for the main version of BB-8 were the physical props; this was used because the radio controlled versions did not capture the personal and realistic movements and reactions that J.J. Abrams was trying to portray.
  • The puppeteers of the physical prop version of BB-8 were required to wear luminous green or blue suits while operating the model.
  • These luminous green or blue suits were required to be worn so that the editors could use advanced special effects software to remove the operators from the shot with more ease than if the suits were not worn.

Special effects used on the film
Advanced special effects and computer generated imagery were used in Star Wars: The Force Awakens; this short video presents these special effects in a cinematic way:

Han Solo and Chewbacca's return to the Millennium Falcon
Two hundred people were behind the monitor watching the scene where Han Solo and Chewbacca return to the Millennium Falcon during filming. This is because the scene presented such an iconic moment in the franchise.

Simon Pegg
Simon Pegg was in the credits for Star Wars: The Force Awakens because he played the role of Unkar Plutt, the junk dealer that Rey dealt with numerous times on Jakku.

IMAX filming
  • The film was shot with a 60mm IMAX camera. IMAX is a technique of widescreen cinematography that is used to produce an image approximately ten times larger than a standard 35mm film.
  • The film was available on a total of 392 IMAX screens across the world.

UK age rating
Star Wars: The Force Awakens received a 12 rating from the British Board of Film Classification; it received this rating because it contains threat and moderate violence.

UK government contributions
The UK government contributed £31.6 million to J.J. Abrams for the production of Star Wars: The Force Awakens; this is approximately 13.4% of the film's total budget.

Actors and Actresses' payments
  • Harrison Ford was paid $20 million to reprise his role of Han Solo; this is said to be the highest amount paid to any of the actors and actresses in the film.
  • Daisy Ridley and John Boyega were paid an estimated amount of £200,000 - £300,000. They received such a low payment in comparison to Harrison Ford because they had had no experience in bigger films and TV shows previously.

Thursday, 29 September 2016

Star Wars: The Force Awakens research

Production companies
  • Lucasfilm Ltd.
  • Bad Robot Productions
  • J. J. Abrams
Screen writers
  • Lawrence Kasdan
  • J. J. Abrams
  • Michael Arndt
Actors & actresses
  • Harrison Ford - Han Solo
  • Mark Hamill - Luke Skywalker
  • Carrie Fisher - General Leia Organa
  • Adam Driver - Kylo Ren
  • Daisy Ridley - Rey
  • John Boyega - FN-2187 / Finn
  • Gross - $306 Million
  • Net - $245 Million
  • Pinewood Studios in Buckinghamshire, England
  • Iceland - Landscape shots
  • The U.A.E emirate of Abu Dhabi
  • Skellig Michael, an island off the coast of County Kerry, Ireland
  • The Lake District in the north west of England - Landscape shots for the planet Takodana
  • Former RAF Greenham Common military base in Berkshire
  • Puzzlewood in the Forest of Dean
Greenlight date
  • October 30th 2012 - The is the date that The Walt Disney Company purchased Lucasfilm for $4 Billion; therefore giving them the rights to make a new Star Wars film.
Screens shown on
  • Opening weekend - 3900 Screens
  • Peak figure - Over 4000 screens
  • Weeks at cinema - 8 Weeks
Critical reaction
  • Rotten Tomatoes - 92%
  • Metacritic - 81%
These are two very strong ratings from the critics; they tell the potential audience that the film is great, therefore increasing the amount of people that will watch the it.
Box office figures
  • North America - $936.7 Million
  • China - $124.1 Million
  • UK - $163.6 Million
  • Worldwide - $2.068 Billion
  • Score composer - John Williams, the composer of most of the music used in the original Star Wars films.
  • Soundtrack - "Main Title and the Attack on the Jakku Village"
  • Two teaser-length trailers were released that let 'old school' fans know that the film will be similar to the originals by consisting mainly of symbols and references.
  • A 2.5 minute trailer was then released on ABC during half time of a football game; this created a large amount of anticipation as it was seen by thousands of people. This trailer was then massively shared and talked about on social media all across the world.
  • Merchandise and toys were released 15 weeks prior to the film's release; these included t-shirts, hats, Lego models and action figures, all from popular brands. Disney paid popular YouTube stars to open the merchandise via webcam in front of millions and millions of people.
  • Some of the key members of the Star Wars production process attended a panel at San Diego Comic-Con, an incredibly popular comic-related convention, to share sneak-peaks and information to thousands of people. This convention was also streamed live on the internet in front of millions of people.
  • Official posters were released that present important characters and aspects of the film.

Teaser Trailer #1

Teaser Trailer #2

Official Trailer

                                                China Poster                                                   US/UK Poster

Tie-in products
  • At least 20 books and comics titled 'Journey to Start Wars: The Force Awakens'
  • Remote controlled BB-8 droid developed by Sphero
  • Action figures - Basic toys for children and expensive, more advanced models for collectors
  • Voice changer masks worn by characters in the film
  • Lightsaber replicas
  • Plushees and soft toys of characters from the film
  • Lego models and sets of space ships and buildings from the film
  • Clothing
  • Stationary
  • Phone cases
  • Posters and printed pictures
  • Video Games
Special effects / CGI
  • A massive amount of computer generated imagery (CGI) was used throughout the entirety of the film to create extremely realistic characters, spaceships, explosions and lasers, scenery and much more. This CGI was used to present the settings, characters and the general world of Star Wars in an immersive, lifelike and natural way.
Production process issues
  • Production was suspended for two weeks after Harrison Ford fractured his leg when a part of the Millennium Falcon fell on him.
  • Daisy Ridley was extremely ill for one of the days that the crew was filming at Skellig Michael; this caused her to struggle to act to her full ability in the dramatic ending scene of the film.

Tuesday, 27 September 2016

Perkins & Festinger - Hotel Babylon

Tessa Perkins' 5 stereotype assumptions - Hotel Babylon

They're not always negative - The woman of Asian ethnicity is presented to be have the stereotype of being intelligent and interested in technology; this is a good personality trait to have as it allows her to be better at her work, therefore complimenting people of Asian ethnicity.

They're not always about minority groups - A stereotype for a non-minority group is created when the white British people in this TV drama are presented to be powerful and demanding. This shows how all ethnic groups have stereotypes created around them.

They can be held about one's own group - Due to this TV drama containing many stereotypes for essentially every character, the director and screenwriters will have acknowledged the stereotypes about their own ethnicities to present them in Hotel Babylon. As these stereotypes clearly make the characters' personalities understandable when their actions are seen, the audience also creates assumptions about different ethnicities.

They're not rigid or unchanging - Stereotypes that are assigned to people of different ethnicities are constantly changing to keep up with popular opinion and modern society to ensure that they retain truthfulness or hilarity, this can be seen many times throughout Hotel Babylon. One example is where the characters that are presented to be African are shown to be hard working and good at their jobs; this coincides with the traditional stereotype of black African people being lazy and refusing to work.

They're not always false - However comical and unbelievable these ethnical stereotypes are, they are mostly found to be accurate and truthful. This can be seen in the TV Drama Hotel Babylon through the white British immigration officers as they are presented to be more powerful than and in conflict with the people of other ethnicities. This is seen in real life all of the time and in most countries as abuse or even wars occur based on the racist stereotypical beliefs that many white people have.

How Festinger's theory explains TV Drama popularity

Leon Festinger's theory of 'cognitive dissonance' can be used to explain why TV dramas, such as Hotel Babylon, are so popular as it argues that people will search for overwhelming evidence that will give them confirmation of their thoughts and beliefs on subjects such as stereotypes based on ethnicity. Because of this, people will look to the media to find popular beliefs on these stereotypes so that they can be sure of what they believe. This will cause a lot of people to watch TV dramas due to the mass use of ethnical stereotypes they use in a realistic and believable way.

As Hotel Babylon is so popular, it proves that Festinger's theory of 'cognitive dissonance' is true. This is because this TV drama contains stereotypes for almost every ethnical group throughout, therefore supplying the audience with plenty of evidence that confirms their beliefs and stereotypical views on ethnicities.

Sunday, 18 September 2016

Ethnicity representation and Camera shots in TV drama - Hotel Babylon

Identifying ethnicities

This TV drama makes the ethnicities and racial backgrounds of all of the workers clear to the audience as soon as they are shown by giving them extremely over exaggerated stereotypical aspects, such as how they look and act. This is very common in TV dramas and is done to let the audience know key features about the characters' personalities based on what they have seen in the media through their lives; this technique is used to quickly give information about the characters without the need to explain, therefore making it easier for the production team and the audience.
  • This screenshot uses a medium/mid shot camera angle to present the fear in every one of the immigrant characters as they hide; this angle shows how each one of them is scared.

Interests, personalities, attitudes and behaviours based on ethnicity

The interests, personalities, attitudes and behaviours of every character in this TV drama are assigned to them based on their ethnicity and common stereotypes from the media that go with them. A clear example of this is through the character Jackie, who is presented to be of Asian ethnicity or origin. This character is seen by her desk working on a computer and surrounded by technological gadgets when she is first introduced in this extract; this presents the common stereotype of Asian people being intelligent and interested in technology. Her intelligence is presented once more when she has a plan to hide the immigrant workers and takes charge of the situation.

These stereotypes are used to let the audience know what kind of people the characters are without the need to explain.
  • The screenshot to the left uses an interior close-up on the character of Asian ethnicity to clearly present her actions to the audience; this angle makes it obvious that she is counting.
  • The screenshot to the right uses a high angle medium shot to present her at her desk; this shows the stereotype of Asian people being intelligent. The high angle is used to show how this stereotype makes her weak in this setting.
The importance of their ethnicities in their lives

The ethnicities of the characters are shown to be very important to them in this TV drama; this is seen in the final scene of the extract. The two characters that are stereotypically presented as African are shown praying before they eat their food; this shows that they prioritise their religion and ethnicity over eating.
  • This screenshot uses a pan to reveal the stereotypes of each ethnicity as they are divided into groups on each table; the camera pans across several tables to show the stereotypical characteristics of each ethnicity.
Ethnicities portrayed to have more power

In this TV drama, the white British characters are portrayed to have more power than those of other ethnicity. This can be seen through the immigration officers as they are presented as the antagonists that hold power over the hotel workers as they gain control and inflict fear into them; this is because they have the power to deport any of the immigrant workers. Also, the white secretary character is presented to have power as she bosses around the other workers at the hotel and acts as if she is above them; an example of this is where she states that a black man has a 'brain like a sift'.
  • The screenshot on the right uses a medium/mid shot to show the three white antagonists; this shot allows the audience to see each character to present how dominant and powerful they are.
  • The screenshot on the right also uses a medium/mid shot to show the white secretary's actions; this supports the stereotype of white people being strict and powerful as it clearly presents the character demanding a foreign man to work.

Ethnicities portrayed to be abnormal/weaker

In this TV drama, every character that has any ethnicity other than white and British is portrayed as a weaker or abnormal character. This is clear because all of the immigrant workers in the hotel have to hide away to avoid getting taken away by the immigration officers; this makes them less powerful that the white British characters. These weak characters are also presented as abnormal; this can be seen through the overly stereotypical ways that each one of them acts depending on where they are from.

These two aspects are used to make the audience think that people from other places are strange and therefore shouldn't be accepted.
  • This short scene uses several handheld interior close-ups to clearly show the fear of each specific immigrant character; the handheld part of this scene creates a sense of realism to make the fearful aspect of the situation immersive to the audience.

How the characters treat those from different ethnic backgrounds

The characters of different ethnicities are treated differently by different people. The character Adam is presented to be of African ethnicity, it is suggested that he was previously a doctor as he is able to help a fellow immigrant worker of a different ethnic background. This shows that the characters that are immigrants and from different ethnic backgrounds treat each other fairly and kindly. The immigration officers treat the characters of different ethnic backgrounds unfairly and use their power to gain control of them, resulting in the immigrants being deported. This mistreatment can be seen when they chase, capture and take away the character 'Ibrahim'.

  • The screenshot on the left uses a high angle shot to present how the hiding immigrant characters are weak in this situation, especially the woman having a hypoglycaemic attack.
  • The screenshot on the right uses a low angle shot to present how the white characters in this scene have power over the immigrant character. These two shots use opposite angles to represent the power that people of different ethnicities have.

The message portrayed by the extract

This extract attempts to portray the message that immigrants and people from different ethnic backgrounds are mistreated and should actually be respected and accepted as they are presented to be caring, kind and very similar to us in the way that they mourn over the loss of Ibrahim.

  • The short clip on the left uses a high angle interior close-up shot to present how the immigrant character is weak and has no power; the close-up aspect of this shot clearly show the audience that the character is recovering.
  • The short clip on the right uses an interior close-up shot to present the sadness and mourning on the characters' faces; this tells the audience that immigrants are caring.